Countries that develop standards have a competitive advantage over those that do not, and countries and sectors that adhere to a global standard are often the leaders in international trade. However, the creation of standards can lead to potential abuses and concerns about anti-dominance. In the United States, the legal basis for cooperation and consortia is contained in the Department of Justice and Federal Trade Commission antitrust guidelines for cooperation between competitors. What is a consortium and what are the types and forms of consortia? A consortium requires a clear distribution of the magnitude between the parties. Care should be taken to ensure that there is no gap between the scope of unionized partners. Together, they are obviously responsible for the entire magnitude vis-à-vis the employer. The scope of each party should be defined at the time of conclusion of the consortium agreement or shortly thereafter. On the basis of this distribution, each will prepare its share of the common offer. The previous point should be clear: a consortium cannot charge. The underlying companies, the unionized partners, must each charge for the respective progress to your extent.
As a general rule, the parties provide a cover letter summarizing the underlying invoices. Technically, this cover letter is not an invoice. I have seen many employer representatives oppose several bills, but. There is no other way. A JV does not have this problem. The employees of a consortium often work in a matrix structure. They report partly to the project manager and partly to their job managers (e.g.B. Engineering, sourcing, etc.) As a result, unfortunately, they think less “project”. This question seems quite natural for JV`s partners.
They can easily indicate the exact numbers of their bet: 50/50 or 60/40 or 40/30/30, etc. The figures are round and remain constant from the signing of the JV agreement to the conclusion of the project. The figures represent each member`s share in the joint venture, including equity (if any). For example, GENIVI Alliance is a non-profit consortium between different car manufacturers to facilitate the implementation of a vehicle infotainment system. In a consortium, each party has its own project manager. Together, they choose a leader to coordinate and present “a face for the customer.” Normally, the party with the most leeway becomes the leader. The director may not bind the parties without the prior agreement of all. Only in very exceptional cases can the scale act immediately. It must do so impartially! And this only to preserve the rights of the consortium or avoid imminent dangers or damage.
This is the case, for example, with an emergency related to health and safety or environmental damage. In the case of public works contracts, individual companies are often invited to form a consortium to guarantee the necessary capacities and guarantees. In the construction sector, these consortia are called ARGE (consortium). Alyeska Pipeline Service Company, the company that built Trans-Alaska`s pipeline system in the 1970s, was originally a consortium of BP, ARCO, ConocoPhillips, Exxon, Mobil, Unocal and Koch Alaska Pipeline Company. [Citation required] Another example is the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), a consortium that standardizes web technologies such as HTML, XML, and CSS. Within a consortium, the potential profit or loss depends on the performance of each party and its magnitude. The actual benefit is not known to the other partner. One party may have a loss, while the other may make gains without having to compensate. An example of a nonprofit consortium is the Appalachian College Association (ACA), headquartered in Richmond, Kentucky. The association consists of 35 private liberal arts colleges and universities spread across the central Appalachian Mountains of Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. . .