There are many examples of PTIAs. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is remarkable. While NAFTA addresses a very wide range of issues, including cross-border trade between Canada, Mexico and the United States, Chapter 11 of the agreement contains detailed foreign investment provisions similar to those contained in the ILO.  Other bilateral examples of PTIA are available in the JAPAN-Singapore EPA, in the Republic of Korea-Chile Free Trade Agreement and in the U.S.-Australia Free Trade Agreement.  The type of investment agreement you need depends on the nature of the transaction. The table below shows different types of investment transactions and the investment agreement associated with them. After an investment tranche, the company can provide an investment guarantee as an explicit guarantee that the guarantor`s statements on the completion date are accurate and correct. Representations and guarantees generally refer to the company`s terms and conditions, which are reviewed as part of due diligence. These may relate to the financial situation (accounting and tax representations), the company`s assets (ownership and valuation), the ownership structure, the operational characteristics and the legal situation of the company. Investors establish that certain conditions must be met before the first tranche of the investment can be closed. These conditions may include that one of the main organizations dealing with the development dimension of AI is the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), which is the UN`s single point of contact on IDAMIT issues and its development dimension. The organization`s IDU program supports developing countries in their efforts to participate effectively in the complex investment regulatory system.
UNCTAD provides capacity-building services, is widely known for its analysis of research and policy on IDU, and is an important forum for intergovernmental discussions and consensus building on issues related to international investment law and international development. It is therefore ideal that, in the development of a shareholders` pact, the company should monitor its statutes in order to preserve a safe and strict protection of how shareholders should react in unforeseen cases that could give rise to possible bitter litigation between the parties of the company. The typical provisions of BITs and ITPs are clauses relating to the standards for the protection and treatment of foreign investment, which generally deal with issues such as fair and equitable treatment, total protection and security, national treatment and the most frequent treatment of nations.  Provisions for compensation for losses suffered by foreign investors as a result of expropriation or war and dispute are generally an essential element of these agreements. Most of them also regulate the cross-border transfer of funds related to foreign investment. Environmental regulations are also becoming more common in I2As. :104 The main objective of international tax treaties is to regulate the distribution of global income taxes of multinationals among countries. In most cases, this means abolishing double taxation.
The substance of the problem lies in the differences of opinion between countries on who is responsible for the taxable income of multinationals. Most of the time, these conflicts are dealt with by bilateral agreements that deal exclusively with income taxation and sometimes on capital. However, in the past, some multilateral tax treaties and bilateral agreements dealing with taxation and other issues have also been concluded.